Formation of Hydronium ion (H3O+) – Coordinate Covalent Bond Example – Digital Kemistry

How is H3O+ ion formed?

Formation of Hydronium ion

When water (H2O) combines with H+ ion ,results in the formation of hydronium ion through coordinate covalent bond.

In H2O ,Oxygen is a central atom having 6 electrons in its valence shell , 2 electrons are shared with 2 H atoms and 2 lone pair(unshared) electrons complete the valence shell configuration of water (H2O).

Due to the presence of lone pair electrons (un shared electron pair) ,it is electron rich specie ( nucleophile)and can donate this electron pair to another atom(electrophile). Therefore H2O is a donor.


Donor is electron rich specie and can donate the lone pair electron.

On the other hand ,when hydrogen atom loses its one valence shell electron results in H+ ion(having no electron).


Acceptor is the electron deficient specie and need electrons to complete its valence shell and becomes stable.

so to complete its valence shell ( duplet) H+ ion need two electrons .Therefore H+ is an electron acceptor(electrophile).

When water molecule combines with H+ ion by the donation of lone pair electron from O-atom (in H2O) to H+ ion results in the formation of Hydronium ion ,H3O+.

Check out Bond pair vs Lone pair ( in Urdu / Hindi)

Coordinate Covalent bond is a type of covalent bond that forms when one atom      donates a pair of electron(Nucleophile) to another atom (Electrophile).

Coordinate Covalent bond is also known as Dative or Dipolar Bond.

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Coordinate Covalent Bond Definition , Examples ,Formation and Properties(in Urdu / Hindi)

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