How is H3O+ ion formed?
Formation of Hydronium ion
When water (H2O) combines with H+ ion, results in the formation of hydronium ion through a coordinate covalent bond.
In H2O , Oxygen is a central atom having 6 electrons in its valence shell , 2 electrons are shared with 2 H atoms and 2 lone pair(unshared) electrons complete the valence shell configuration of water (H2O).
Due to the presence of lone pair electrons (unshared electron pair), it is electron-rich specie ( nucleophile)and can donate this electron pair to another atom(electrophile). Therefore H2O is a donor.
A donor is electron-rich specie and can donate the lone pair electron.
On the other hand, when a hydrogen atom loses its one valence shell electron results in H+ ion(having no electron).
Acceptor is the electron-deficient specie and need electrons to complete its valence shell and becomes stable.
so to complete its valence shell ( duplet) H+ ion needs two electrons.Therefore H+ is an electron acceptor(electrophile).
When water molecule combines with H+ ion by the donation of lone pair electron from O-atom (in H2O) to H+ ion results in the formation of Hydronium ion,H3O+.
Check out Bond pair vs Lone pair ( in Urdu / Hindi)
Coordinate Covalent bond is a type of covalent bond that forms when one atom donates a pair of electrons (Nucleophile) to another atom (Electrophile).
A coordinate Covalent bond is also known as a Dative or Dipolar Bond.
Watch -> Coordinate Covalent Bond Definition , Examples ,Formation and Properties(in Urdu / Hindi)