chemistry

Hyperconjugation | Hyperconjugation Effect in Carbocation – Organic Chemistry | Digital Kemistry

What is Hyperconjugation?

Hyperconjugation  is the stabilizing interaction of the σ electrons (usually C-H or C-C) with an adjacent p-orbital (empty or partially filled or a” π” – orbital) .

Hyperconjugation is known as No bond Resonance or σ-bond” π” orbital resonance.

Hyperconjugation plays an important role in the stability of the following:

  • Carbocations
  • Free Radicals
  • Alkenes

Hyperconjugation Effect in Carbocation:

Rules for Hyperconjugation in Carbocations:

  1. Positively charged carbon with empty p – orbital
  2. C-H sigma bond electrons

The C-H sigma electrons are dispersed or shifted towards the empty p- orbital. As a result of the dispersion(delocalization ) of electrons ,the positive charge on carbon get dispersed and a carbocation get stabilized.

Ethyl Carbocation- Example of Hyperconjugation:

In ethyl carbocation, the positively charged carbon has empty p-orbital (due to the electron deficiency ,carbocation is an electrophile).The sigma electrons are delocalizes between C-H and empty p-orbital .As a result of this interaction, the positive charge on carbon get dispersed and stabilized.

More Hyperconjugation = More stability of Carbocation

How you can calculate the stability of carbocation with hyperconjugation :

Calculating the total number of alpha hydrogen to find the stability of carbocation plays a vital role.

More no. of alpha hydrogen = More hyperconjugation = More stable carbocation

Carbon adjacent to the positively charged carbon is α carbon and all the hydrogen attached with this carbon are α hydrogens.

Stability order of carbocation:

More alkyl groups attached to the positively charged carbon = More Hyperconjugation = More stability

Methyl carbocation< Primary carbocation < secondary carbocation < tertiary carbocation

Also Read !!!

Classification of Carbocation:

Classification of Carbocation

What are free radicals Chemistry Definition ,Examples ,Formation and Properties

What are free radicals Chemistry😊 Definition ,Examples ,Formation and Properties- Digital Kemistry

Also Read !!!

Ionic Bond

Covalent Bond

Coordinate Covalent Bond

Metallic Bond

Hydrogen Bond

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Categories: chemistry

6 replies »

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