Electronegativity Definition, Periodic Trends ,Examples and Facts – Chemistry

What is Electronegativity?

Electronegativity is defined as the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract the shared electron pair towards itself is known as electronegativity.

Electronegativity trends that can be observed in the periodic table as we move from left to right in a periodic table, the electronegativity increases. so fluorine is the most electronegative element of the periodic table whereas on moving from top to the bottom , the electronegativity decreases.

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Electronegativity Example:

To understand electronegativity, lets take an example of hydrogen fluoride molecule.

In HF molecule ,both hydrogen and fluorine share one valence electron to form covalent bond.

But the shared electron pair is attracted more towards fluorine as compared to hydrogen .The unequal sharing of electron pair produces partial charge formation due to the electronegativity difference.

Importance of Electronegativity:

On the basis of electronegativity values of an atom, we can:

1,Predict the atom will form ionic bond or covalent bond.

2. Predict the formation of polar or non-polar molecule.

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Ionic Bond

Covalent Bond

What is Electronegativity Difference?

Electronegativity difference plays a vital role in the formation of a chemical bond.

If the electronegativity difference is greater than 1.7 ,the bond will be ionic bond.

If the difference in the electronegativity is between 0.4 to 1.7 ,the bond will be polar bond.


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Chemical Bonding

Ionic Bond

Covalent Bond

Coordinate Bond

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