chemistry

Electronegativity – Which Factors Influence Electronegativity – Digital Kemistry

Key points:

Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract the shared electron pair towards itself in a covalent bond .

The electronegativity increases from left to the right in a period .

The electronegativity decreases down the group .

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Factors affecting Electronegativity:

The key factors that influence electronegativity are as follow:

1.Atomic size

2.Nuclear charge

3.Shielding effect

4.Hybridization

5. Multiplicity of a bond

Atomic size :

Larger the atomic size of the element in the periodic table refer to the bigger atomic size .

The bigger atomic size is due to the increase in shell number, the electrons being far away from the nucleus will experience a lesser nuclear force of attraction.

Therefore, it will result in lesser electronegativity values.

Nuclear charge :

Effective nuclear charge (Z) is due to the number of proton in the nucleus of an atom.

Greater nuclear charge will result in a greater electronegativity value.

This happens because the nucleus attract the electrons more towards itself.

Shielding effect :

Shielding effect is responsible for the decrease in nuclear force of attraction for the valence shell electrons.

Greater shielding effect will result in a lesser electronegativity value.

Hybridization :

Greater the s-character of the hybrid orbital, greater the electronegativity value.

In sp3 hybridization ,we have 25% s-character

In sp2 hybridization ,we have 33.3% s-character

In sp hybridization ,we have 50% s-character

so the increasing order of electronegativity values:

sp3 < sp2 < sp

Multiplicity of a bond :

In case of single ,double and triple covalent bond , the electronegativity value of :

single bond < double bond < triple bond

so with the increase in bond number ,the bond length decrease which will result in a greater electronegativity value .

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