Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract the shared electron pair towards itself in a covalent bond .
The electronegativity increases from left to the right in a period .
The electronegativity decreases down the group .
Factors affecting Electronegativity:
The key factors that influence electronegativity are as follow:
5. Multiplicity of a bond
Atomic size :
Larger the atomic size of the element in the periodic table refer to the bigger atomic size .
The bigger atomic size is due to the increase in shell number, the electrons being far away from the nucleus will experience a lesser nuclear force of attraction.
Therefore, it will result in lesser electronegativity values.
Nuclear charge :
Effective nuclear charge (Z) is due to the number of proton in the nucleus of an atom.
Greater nuclear charge will result in a greater electronegativity value.
This happens because the nucleus attract the electrons more towards itself.
Shielding effect :
Shielding effect is responsible for the decrease in nuclear force of attraction for the valence shell electrons.
Greater shielding effect will result in a lesser electronegativity value.
Greater the s-character of the hybrid orbital, greater the electronegativity value.
In sp3 hybridization ,we have 25% s-character
In sp2 hybridization ,we have 33.3% s-character
In sp hybridization ,we have 50% s-character
so the increasing order of electronegativity values:
sp3 < sp2 < sp
Multiplicity of a bond :
In case of single ,double and triple covalent bond , the electronegativity value of :
single bond < double bond < triple bond
so with the increase in bond number ,the bond length decrease which will result in a greater electronegativity value .
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