Classification of Organic Compounds:
Organic compounds are usually divided on two basis.
(i) Classification of organic compounds on the basis of arrangement of carbon atoms or structure basis:
Following classification of Organic compounds are made on the basis of arrangement of carbon atoms .
1.Open Chain Compounds :
Open Chain Compounds also known as Acyclic Compounds or Aliphatic Compounds .
The compounds in which carbons are linked in straight or branched chains are called Open Chain Compounds .
Types of Open Chain Compounds :
Straight Chain Compounds Branch Chain Compounds
attached in straight chain) (Carbons attached in branched chains)
2.Closed Chain Compounds :
Closed chain compounds are also known as Cyclic Compounds .
The compounds in which carbon atoms form rings are called closed chain compounds.
Closed Chain Compounds are divided into:
1.Homocyclic or Carbocyclic Compounds : (Cyclic comp having only carbon in the ring)
2.Heterocyclic Compounds: (Cyclic comp having atoms other than carbon also in the ring)
Classification of Homocyclic or Carbocyclic Compounds :
Alicyclic Compounds Aromatic Compounds
(Carbocyclic comp having (Carbocyclic comp
rings other than aromatic having 4n + 2 π
rings and properties electrons and
similar to aliphatic comp) conjugate double bond system)
(ii) Classification of organic compounds on the basis of functional groups:
An atom or a group of atoms in a molecule that is responsible for chemical behavior of the molecule is called functional group.
e.g Alkyl halide Carboxylic acid Alcohol
On the basis of functional groups, organic compounds are divided into various families.
A few families are:
Family Functional Group Family Functional Group
1.Alkane Nil, just has -C-C- 2.Alkene >C = C<
3.Alkyne -C≡C- 4.Arene (Aromatic comp)
5.Alkyl halide -X 6.Alcohol -OH (attached to aliphatic carbon)
7.Phenol -OH (attached to aromatic carbon) 8.Ether C-O-C
9.Amine -NH2(pri), NH(sec), N(ter) 10.Ketone ─C─
11.Aldehyde ─C─H 12.Carboxylic acid ─C─OH
13.Ester ─C─O─R 14.Acid halide ─C─X
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d and f-block Elements ( complete chapter Notes)
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