chemistry

Classification of Organic Compounds – Organic Chemistry

Classification of Organic Compounds:

 Organic compounds are usually divided on two basis.

(i) Classification of organic compounds on the basis of arrangement of carbon atoms or structure basis:

  Following classification of Organic compounds are made on the basis of arrangement of carbon atoms .

 1.Open Chain Compounds :

Open Chain Compounds also known as Acyclic Compounds or Aliphatic Compounds .

The compounds in which carbons are linked  in straight or branched chains are called Open Chain Compounds .

Types of Open Chain Compounds :

Straight Chain Compounds                        Branch Chain Compounds                                                                              

attached in straight chain)      (Carbons attached  in branched chains)                 

                  e.g                                           CH3                                        

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3                       │   

CH3-CH-CH3                                                                                                                       

n-butane                                     Isobutane                                                                                                        

                                                                            

2.Closed Chain Compounds :

Closed chain compounds are also known as Cyclic Compounds .

The compounds in which carbon atoms form rings are called closed chain compounds.

  Closed Chain Compounds are divided into:

1.Homocyclic or Carbocyclic Compounds : (Cyclic comp having only carbon in the  ring)                  

2.Heterocyclic Compounds: (Cyclic comp having atoms other than carbon also in the ring)

Classification of Homocyclic or Carbocyclic Compounds :

          Alicyclic Compounds                                  Aromatic Compounds              

      (Carbocyclic comp having                                       (Carbocyclic comp

       rings other than aromatic                                       having 4n + 2 π        

        rings and properties                                                 electrons and            

       similar to aliphatic comp)                                      conjugate double bond system)

        

(ii) Classification of organic compounds on the basis of functional groups:

Functional groups Organic Chemistry in Urdu / Hindi

           An atom or a group of atoms in a molecule that is responsible for chemical behavior of the molecule is called functional group.

  e.g          Alkyl halide                          Carboxylic acid                   Alcohol

On the basis of functional groups, organic compounds are divided into various families.

A few families are:

Family                   Functional Group                               Family                                   Functional Group 

1.Alkane                Nil, just has -C-C-                                2.Alkene                                     >C = C<           

3.Alkyne                       -C≡C-                                              4.Arene (Aromatic comp)

5.Alkyl halide              -X                                                      6.Alcohol                   -OH (attached to aliphatic carbon)

7.Phenol            -OH (attached to aromatic carbon)    8.Ether                            C-O-C

                                                                                                                                                   O

                                                                                                                                                   ║

9.Amine                 -NH2(pri), NH(sec), N(ter)                   10.Ketone                          ─C─

                                   O                                                                                                             O

                                   ║                                                                                                             ║

11.Aldehyde         ─C─H                                                    12.Carboxylic acid             ─C─OH

                                   O                                                                                                             O

                                   ║                                                                                                             ║

13.Ester                 ─C─O─R                                              14.Acid halide                      ─C─X

                                   O

                                   ║

15.Amide              ─C─NH2

Hydrocarbons and its Classification in Urdu / Hindi

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