Shapes of Orbitals:
Shapes of orbitals are obtained by probability contours. If we plot probability of finding electrons versus distance from nucleus, we see that probability is zero at the nucleus it increases going away from nucleus and becomes maximum at distance “r” and then gradually decreases going further away from nucleus but never becomes zero even at infinite distance from the nucleus.
If we represent probability by dots and draw a boundary around maximum dots, shape of orbital is obtained.
Shapes of s, p and d-orbitals:
s-orbital: It has spherical shape. It is a single orbital.
p-orbitals: They have dumbbell shape. The three p-orbitals are on x, y and z axis. Each p-orbital has two lobes.
d-orbitals: They are five in number. Four out of these five contain four lobes while fifth has two lobes and a ring.
f-orbitals: They are seven in number. Their Shapes are complicated.
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Difference between Shell ,Subshell and Orbital ( in Urdu / Hindi)