Types of Coal | How Coal is formed Step by Step | Coal Formation Process | Organic Compounds


Coal is an important solid fossil fuel. It is a black mineral of plant origin found under earth crust.

How Coal is formed?

Dead plants, which were buried under the earth crust millions of years ago, they due to different bacterial and chemical reactions first converted into peat which under high temperature and pressure was slowly converted to coal.

Best quality coal is formed by passing through several stages results in the formation of four types of coal.

4 Types of Coal:

Coal on the basis of its carbon contents is divided into four types.



3.Bituminous coal

4.Anthracite coal


first stage of transformation . Its carbon contents are 40-55%.

Contain sufficient volatile matter and lot of moisture. Its calorific values are very low so it is not used as fuel.

Lignite : 

It is soft and is of brown color.

Its carbon contents are 40-55 %. It is soft and is of brown color.

Its calorific values are very low so it is not used as fuel.

Bituminous :

  Its carbon contents are 80-90%. It is the most abundant form of coal. It is used as domestic fuel and to obtain organic compounds.


 Its carbon contents are 92-98%. It has high calorific values.

Uses of coal:

1.Coal is used as domestic as well as industrial fuel to minimize the use of petroleum and natural gas.

2.It is also used as fuel to generate electricity. 

3.Coal is also a source of large number of organic compounds especially aromatic compounds.

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