chemistry

Homologous Series Definition, Formula, Types and Characteristics – Organic Chemistry

Do you know !!

Organic compounds are classified into different series on the basis of functional groups. These series are called homologous series. Thus the study of organic compounds becomes easier.

Homologous Series:

Homo means “same ” and series means “sequence”

so

A series of organic compounds have the same functional group, same chemical properties but each member is different from the next member by a methylene group (-CH2) & physical properties are called homologous series.

Homologous Series Definition:

              A series of compounds in which there is a constant difference of methylene (-CH2-) group between any two successive members of the family.

Each member of the homologous series is called a homolog.

What are homologs?

In Organic chemistry, homologous series adjacent members differ by methylene (-CH2-) group. These individual members are called homologs.

General characteristics of Homologous Series:

  1. There is a constant difference of methylene (-CH2-) group between any two successive members of a homologous series.
  2. All the members of a homologous series can be represented by a general formula e.g. general formulae for alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, alkyl halides are CnH2n+2, CnH2n, CnH2n2, CnH2n+1OH, CnH2n+1X respectively.
  3. All the members of a homologous series have same functional group.
  4. All the members of a homologous series have same general chemical properties.
  5. There is a gradual change in physical properties in a homologous series from lower members to higher members.
  6. All the members of a homologous series can be prepared by same general methods of preparations.
  7. All families of organic compounds form a homologous series.

General Formula for alkane ,alkene & alkyne:

Homologous series Definition ,Formula ,Examples
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