Detection of Carbon and Hydrogen in an Organic Compound – Organic Chemistry

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Qualitative analysis is a method that is used to detect the elements present in an organic compound.

The main elements present in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen as well as Nitrogen, Sulphur and Halogens.

The following method is used for the detection of carbon and hydrogen in the organic compound.

Detection of Carbon:

As carbon is the essential element of all organic compounds. Therefore, there is no need to do a test for it.

The test is performed only to confirm whether a given compound is organic or inorganic.

Material Required:

  1. 2 test tubes
  2. Delivery tube
  3. Organic compound
  4. Dry Cupric oxide
  5. Ca(OH)2 ( Lime water)
  6. Bunsen burner

Procedure:

  • Mix the given organic compound (one part) with dry cupric oxide ( 3 parts).
  • Heat a mixture in a test tube fitted with a delivery tube.
  • Carbon is oxidized to carbon dioxide and reduced cupric oxide to copper.
  • The carbon dioxide gas passing through the lime water turns it milky, which confirms the presence of carbon in the given organic compound.

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Detection of Hydrogen:

Hydrogen is mostly present in all organic compounds.

The following method is used for the detection of hydrogen in the organic compound.

Material Required:

  1. Test tube
  2. Delivery tube
  3. Organic compound
  4. Dry Cupric oxide
  5. Anhydrous Copper sulphate (CuSO4 )
  6. Bunsen burner

Procedure:

  • Mix the given organic compound (one part) with dry cupric oxide ( 3 parts).
  • Heat a mixture in a test tube fitted with a delivery tube.
  • Hydrogen in an organic compound is oxidized to water vapours and reduced cupric oxide to copper.
  • When anhydrous copper sulphate comes in contact with water vapours,it forms a blue colour CuSO4.5H2O.

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