Comparison of three states of matter – my Digital Kemistry

Matter: Anything that has mass, as well as volume, is called matter. Matter exists in four states i.e. solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Comparison of three states of matter Some Important Uses of Liquid Gases: Compressed natural gas (CNG) is used as fuel in vehicles. Liquid oxygen is used in hospitals for patients suffering from …

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Solubility, Reactions and nature of Ionic and Covalent Compounds – my Digital Kemistry

Effect of bonding on physical and chemical properties:             Physical properties depend upon intermolecular forces (Hydrogen bonding, Dipole-dipole forces & London dispersion forces). While chemical properties depend upon intramolecular forces (Chemical bonds). (i)       Solubility of Ionic and Covalent compounds: Solubility is based on the fact “like dissolve like”. e.g. ionic compounds are more soluble in …

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What is meant by dipole moment?

Dipole Moment (µ) definition:             “Product of charge +ve or –ve and distance between the centres of charges is called dipole moment” Dipole moment is the measure of separation of charges and also the measure of the polarity of bond and polarity of the molecule. Dipole moment Formula:                                     µ = q x r             where …

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How do you determine an ionic character?

What is an Ionic Character? Ionic character is a measure of the polarity of a bond. It depends upon the difference in electronegativity of two bonded atoms, more is a difference in electronegativity high will be an ionic character. Bond between identical atoms: When a bond is between identical atoms, the electronegativity difference is zero …

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Structure of Ethyne Hybridization – sp Hybridization in C2H2

Structure of Ethyne: sp Hybridization in Ethyne ( Acetylene):          The hybridization in which one s-orbital and one p-orbital are mixed to form two identical hybrid orbitals is called sp hybridization. The two sp hybrid orbitals degenerate (have equal energy) and they are at an angle of 180o. The remaining two un-hybridized p-orbitals are perpendicular …

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Methods of Preparation of Alkynes – Organic Chemistry Notes

General Methods of Preparation of Alkynes: By dehydrohalogenation of vicinal dihaloalkanes: The removal of hydrogen and halogen is called dehydrohalogenation. When vicinal dihalides are heated with an alcoholic solution of KOH,  hydrogen and halogen atoms are removed from adjacent carbons and in two steps alkynes are produced. Dehalogenation of Tetrahaloalkanes: Tetrahaloalkanes on treated with active …

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Alkyne Nomenclature | Common vs IUPAC System – Organic Chemistry

Alkynes Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons which have at least one carbon-carbon triple bond and a general molecular formula CnH2n-2.  Their functional group is – C ≡ C –. Alkyne Nomenclature: Common System: In the common system, alkynes are considered alkyl derivatives of acetylene (the smallest member of the family). First names of alkyl groups present …

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Conjugation in Alkenes – Organic Chemistry

What is conjugation in alkenes? “The phenomenon of the existence of alternate double and single bonds among carbon atoms is called conjugation.” -C=C-C=C-C=C- Example of Conjugated Compound: e.g. 1,3-butadiene CH2 = CH – CH = CH2 is a conjugated compound. In it all the four carbons are sp2 hybridized. Also, all carbons and hydrogens in …

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