atomic structure

Gas Discharge Tube Experiment | Discovery of Cathode rays

Discharge tube Experiment (William Crooks Experiment) (Discovery of Electrons / Cathode rays)  Gases are bad conductors of electricity but it is observed that at low pressure they conduct electricity. For this William purpose Crooks developed a discharge tube or cathode ray tube. The gas discharge tube consists of : 1. Cylindrical glass tube 2. Two …

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Planck’s Quantum Theory of Radiation| Black body radiation

Planck’s Quantum Theory of Radiation: In 1900, a German Physicist Max Planck had studied radiations emitted by hot black bodies and presented the results of his famous black body radiations experiments, which showed that light has a dual character, behaving like a particle as well as a wave. He gave the quantum theory of radiation …

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Charle’s Law – Gas Law Chemistry Notes

Charle’s Law: Jacques Charles, in 1662, gave this law. It relates the volume and absolute temperature of ideal gases at constant pressure and mass. It states “For a fixed mass of a gas, the volume is directly proportional to absolute temperature at constant pressure.” V         ∝        T          …………….. (1) This shows that when absolute temperature …

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What are the Defects of Bohr’s Atomic Model?

What are the Defects of Bohr’s Atomic Model? In 1913 Neil Bohr’s presented a new model for an atom, known as Bohr’s atomic model. It has the following defects: 1. Spectrum of poly electrons atoms:  Bohr’s atomic model cannot explain the spectrum of complicated (poly electrons) atoms. It only explains the spectrum of H-atom and …

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Bohrs atomic model

Bohr’s Atomic Model ( Main Postulates) – Chemistry Notes

Bohr’s Atomic Model: (Bohr’s atomic model for hydrogen atom) Neils Bohr’s, 1913 proposed a model of an atom based on the planks quantum theory of radiation. Main Postulates of Bohr’s theory: The basic postulates of Bohr’s theory are: An atom consists of small, heavily positively charged nucleus around which electrons revolve in definite circular paths …

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Rutherford’s Atomic Model (Gold Foil Experiment) – Chemistry Notes

Rutherford’s Atomic Model Rutherford,1911 performed an experiment in order to find the arrangement of electrons and protons in an atom. Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment Rutherford bombarded a very thin gold foil about 0.00004 cm thickness with alpha particles. Alpha particles were obtained from the disintegration of polonium. Alpha particles are helium nuclei. i.e. He ++ …

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Valence Concept and Orbital Concept – Concepts of chemical bonding

Explain the two concepts, which explain the chemical bonding?ANSWER:There are two concepts, which explain chemical bonding.A. The Valence ConceptB. The Orbital ConceptThe Valence Concept (Electric theory of valence) INTRODUCTION:G.N Lewis and W. Kossel in 1916, gave the electronic theory of valence. The Valence Concept: STATEMENT:It states that,“In the formation of a chemical bond, atoms take …

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Chapter Atomic Structure Free downloadable pdf Notes

Chemistry Chapter Atomic Structure Notes ( Full Chapter 2 Notes) Also, Watch ->How to find Quantum Numbers? Watch Now -> How do you write electronic configuration (simplest Trick) -> n+l rule Watch -> Electronic configuration of Iron Check out -> Atomic structure free pdf (Full Chapter)

Electronic Configuration Rules | Chemistry Notes

Electronic Configuration: The distribution and arrangement of electrons in various shells, sub-shells and orbitals is called electronic configuration. Electronic configuration follows three rules. Auf Bau Principle: It states: “Electrons occupy shells in increasing order of their energies” or “Electrons occupy sub-shells in increasing order of their energies or n+ℓ values” First electrons fill the sub-shell with …

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