chemistry

Planck’s Quantum Theory of Radiation| Black body radiation

Planck’s Quantum Theory of Radiation: In 1900, a German Physicist Max Planck had studied radiations emitted by hot black bodies and presented the results of his famous black body radiations experiments, which showed that light has a dual character, behaving like a particle as well as a wave. He gave the quantum theory of radiation …

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Avogadro’s Law – Gas Law Chemistry Notes

Avogadro’s Law: Avogadro, in 1813, gave this law. It relates the volume and number of particles of ideal gases at constant temperature and pressure. It states “Equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules.” It means if two gases have the same volume, same temperature and …

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Charle’s Law – Gas Law Chemistry Notes

Charle’s Law: Jacques Charles, in 1662, gave this law. It relates the volume and absolute temperature of ideal gases at constant pressure and mass. It states “For a fixed mass of a gas, the volume is directly proportional to absolute temperature at constant pressure.” V         ∝        T          …………….. (1) This shows that when absolute temperature …

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What are the Defects of Bohr’s Atomic Model?

What are the Defects of Bohr’s Atomic Model? In 1913 Neil Bohr’s presented a new model for an atom, known as Bohr’s atomic model. It has the following defects: 1. Spectrum of poly electrons atoms:  Bohr’s atomic model cannot explain the spectrum of complicated (poly electrons) atoms. It only explains the spectrum of H-atom and …

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Bohrs atomic model

Bohr’s Atomic Model ( Main Postulates) – Chemistry Notes

Bohr’s Atomic Model: (Bohr’s atomic model for hydrogen atom) Neils Bohr’s, 1913 proposed a model of an atom based on the planks quantum theory of radiation. Main Postulates of Bohr’s theory: The basic postulates of Bohr’s theory are: An atom consists of small, heavily positively charged nucleus around which electrons revolve in definite circular paths …

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Rutherford’s Atomic Model (Gold Foil Experiment) – Chemistry Notes

Rutherford’s Atomic Model Rutherford,1911 performed an experiment in order to find the arrangement of electrons and protons in an atom. Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment Rutherford bombarded a very thin gold foil about 0.00004 cm thickness with alpha particles. Alpha particles were obtained from the disintegration of polonium. Alpha particles are helium nuclei. i.e. He ++ …

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Boyle’s Law | Gas Law – State of matter Gases

Boyle’s Law: Robert Boyle, in 1662, gave this law. It relates the pressure and volume of ideal gases at constant temperature and mass. It states “For a fixed mass of a gas, the volume is inversely proportional to the pressure at a constant temperature.”     Thus law can also be stated as: “For a fixed mass …

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Valence Concept and Orbital Concept – Concepts of chemical bonding

Explain the two concepts, which explain the chemical bonding? ANSWER:There are two concepts, which explain chemical bonding.A. The Valence ConceptB. The Orbital ConceptThe Valence Concept (Electric theory of valence) INTRODUCTION:G.N Lewis and W. Kossel in 1916, gave the electronic theory of valence. The Valence Concept: STATEMENT:It states that,“In the formation of a chemical bond, atoms …

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Why do atoms form chemical bonds? – Chemistry Notes

 Why do atoms form chemical bonds?                             OR Why most atoms are chemically bonded to other atoms in nature? ANSWER: Chemical bond:  The attractive force which holds the atoms together to form a compound or molecule is called a Chemical bond. REASONS:  Every system in the universe tends to lower its energy, in order to …

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