hydrocarbons

Structure of Ethyne Hybridization – sp Hybridization in C2H2

Structure of Ethyne: sp Hybridization in Ethyne ( Acetylene):          The hybridization in which one s-orbital and one p-orbital are mixed to form two identical hybrid orbitals is called sp hybridization. The two sp hybrid orbitals degenerate (have equal energy) and they are at an angle of 180o. The remaining two un-hybridized p-orbitals are perpendicular …

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What are the Chemical Properties of Alkenes – Hydrocarbons Notes

Chemical Properties of Alkenes: The reactions of alkenes can be divided into three categories.    Addition Reactions:               Alkenes being unsaturated compounds mostly show addition reactions and the addition is electrophilic addition. Mechanism:               A polar or temporarily polarized molecule approaches to alkene and +ve end of the molecule pulls its π-electrons as a result …

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Why alkenes are more reactive than alkanes – Hydrocarbons Notes

Reactivity of alkenes:   Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes. Reason !! Alkenes have a double bond which consists of a strong sigma (δ) bond (bond energy = 83 Kcal/mol) and a weak pi (π )-bond (bond energy = 63 Kcal/mol). The density of π-electrons is high above and below the bond axis. In other …

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Explain the Relative Stability of Alkenes – Hydrocarbons Notes

Relative Stability of Alkenes: Various alkenes differ in stability. The extent of stability of alkenes depends upon following factors: Position of double bond:  1-Butene is less stable than 2-butene which is evident from their heats of combustions. 1-butene being least stable liberates more heat on combustion. CH2 = CH – CH2 – CH3 + 6O2 …

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Physical Properties of Alkenes – Hydrocarbons Notes

Physical Properties of Alkenes: Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond in their structure. The general physical properties of alkenes are as follows: States of alkenes: At room temperature and pressure 1st three alkenes (i.e. from C2 to C4) are colorless gases. Alkenes from C5 to C18 are colourless liquids while …

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Structure of alkenes | sp2 Hybridization in alkenes

Structure of alkenes: Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond. The trigonal planar structure of alkenes is due to sp2 hybridization. so, What is sp2 hybridization? sp2 Hybridization definition:               The hybridization in which one s-orbital and two p-orbitals are mixed to form three identical hybrid orbitals is called sp2 hybridization. …

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Preparation of Alkenes – Class 12 Chemistry Chapter Hydrocarbons Notes

Methods of Preparation of Alkenes are as follow: By Dehydration of Alcohols: The removal of water is called dehydration. Alcohols when heated with dehydrating agents like H2SO4 or Al2O3 or P4O10 (also written as P2O5) they lose water so they are dehydrated to corresponding alkenes. The ease of dehydration in alcohols is in the order …

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Uses of Alkanes – Hydrocarbons Notes

Do you know!!! Uses of Alkanes: Following are the uses of alkanes. Alkanes are used as fuel. e.g. refinery gas, gasoline, kerosene oil, diesel oil all are mixture of alkanes and are used as fuel. By catalytic oxidation of alkanes fatty acids (carboxylic acids) are prepared which are used in soap and vegetable oils. By …

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Chemical Properties of Alkanes | Halogenation and Oxidation in alkanes

Chemical Properties of Alkanes:: Alkanes being saturated compounds mostly show substitution reactions. Their oxidation is very difficult thus even strong oxidizing agents like KMnO4, K2Cr2O7 etc cannot oxidize them. Halogenation: Halogens replace hydrogen from alkanes and it is called halogenation of alkanes. The order of reactivity of halogens with alkanes is F2>Cl2>Br2>I2 Fluorine shows a …

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