organic chemistry

Structure of Ethyne Hybridization – sp Hybridization in C2H2

Structure of Ethyne: sp Hybridization in Ethyne ( Acetylene):          The hybridization in which one s-orbital and one p-orbital are mixed to form two identical hybrid orbitals is called sp hybridization. The two sp hybrid orbitals degenerate (have equal energy) and they are at an angle of 180o. The remaining two un-hybridized p-orbitals are perpendicular …

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Methods of Preparation of Alkynes – Organic Chemistry Notes

General Methods of Preparation of Alkynes: By dehydrohalogenation of vicinal dihaloalkanes: The removal of hydrogen and halogen is called dehydrohalogenation. When vicinal dihalides are heated with an alcoholic solution of KOH,  hydrogen and halogen atoms are removed from adjacent carbons and in two steps alkynes are produced. Dehalogenation of Tetrahaloalkanes: Tetrahaloalkanes on treated with active …

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Alkyne Nomenclature | Common vs IUPAC System – Organic Chemistry

Alkynes Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons which have at least one carbon-carbon triple bond and a general molecular formula CnH2n-2.  Their functional group is – C ≡ C –. Alkyne Nomenclature: Common System: In the common system, alkynes are considered alkyl derivatives of acetylene (the smallest member of the family). First names of alkyl groups present …

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Conjugation in Alkenes – Organic Chemistry

What is conjugation in alkenes? “The phenomenon of the existence of alternate double and single bonds among carbon atoms is called conjugation.” -C=C-C=C-C=C- Example of Conjugated Compound: e.g. 1,3-butadiene CH2 = CH – CH = CH2 is a conjugated compound. In it all the four carbons are sp2 hybridized. Also, all carbons and hydrogens in …

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What is meant by Chirality – Chiral and Achiral in Organic Chemistry

What is Chirality? “The property of non-identity of an object with its mirror image is called chirality.” Chiral centre of the molecule: “A structural feature within a molecule that is responsible for its chirality is called the chiral centre of the molecule.” What is meant by chiral carbon? “The carbon to which four different atoms …

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What is Markovnikov’s rule? – Chemistry

What is Markovnikov’s rule?  “When an unsymmetrical reagent adds to an unsymmetrical alkene or alkyne, the positive part of the reagent becomes attached to the double or triple bonded carbon which bears the greatest number of hydrogen atoms and vice versa.”                                     OR “When an asymmetric molecule is added to an asymmetric alkene or alkyne …

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Identifying Examples of different branches of Chemistry | Class 9 Chemistry Chapter 1 Notes

Identifying examples of different branches of chemistry class 9 chemistry chapter 1 notes: 1. Photosynthesis produces glucose and oxygen from CO2 and H2O in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight. 2. Plantation helps in overcoming the Greenhouse effect. 3. Haber’s process converts large quantities of hydrogen and nitrogen into ammonia.  4. Ammonia is a colourless …

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