Classification of Organic Compounds – Organic Chemistry

Classification of Organic Compounds:

 Organic compounds are usually divided on two basis.

(i) Classification of organic compounds on the basis of arrangement of carbon atoms or structure basis:

  Following classification of Organic compounds are made on the basis of arrangement of carbon atoms .

 1.Open Chain Compounds :

Open Chain Compounds also known as Acyclic Compounds or Aliphatic Compounds .

The compounds in which carbons are linked  in straight or branched chains are called Open Chain Compounds .

Types of Open Chain Compounds :

Straight Chain Compounds      

Branch Chain Compounds                                                                                       2.Closed Chain Compounds :

Closed chain compounds are also known as Cyclic Compounds .

The compounds in which carbon atoms form rings are called closed chain compounds.

  Closed Chain Compounds are divided into:

1.Homocyclic or Carbocyclic Compounds :

(Cyclic comp having only carbon in the  ring)                  

2.Heterocyclic Compounds:

(Cyclic comp having atoms other than carbon also in the ring)

Classification of Homocyclic or Carbocyclic Compounds :

 Alicyclic Compounds                                  Aromatic Compounds              

(ii) Classification of organic compounds on the basis of functional groups:

Functional groups Organic Chemistry in Urdu / Hindi

           An atom or a group of atoms in a molecule that is responsible for chemical behavior of the molecule is called functional group.

  e.g     Alkyl halide  ,Carboxylic acid   ,                Alcohol

On the basis of functional groups, organic compounds are divided into various families.

A few families are:

functional groups
functional groups
functional groups
common functional groups
common functional groups

Family             Functional Group                              

1.Alkane        Nil, just has -C-C-                                2.Alkene               >C = C<           

3.Alkyne            -C≡C-                                              4.Arene (Aromatic comp)

5.Alkyl halide  -X    

6.Alcohol     -OH (attached to aliphatic carbon)

7.Phenol     -OH (attached to aromatic carbon)    8.Ether               C-O-C

9.Amine        -NH2(pri), NH(sec), N(ter)                   10.Ketone          ─CO─

11.Aldehyde        ─CHO                                         

12.Carboxylic acid    ─COOH

Hydrocarbons and its Classification in Urdu / Hindi

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