Classification of Organic Compounds:
Organic compounds are usually divided on two basis.
(i) Classification of organic compounds on the basis of arrangement of carbon atoms or structure basis:
Following classification of Organic compounds are made on the basis of arrangement of carbon atoms .
1.Open Chain Compounds :
Open Chain Compounds also known as Acyclic Compounds or Aliphatic Compounds .
The compounds in which carbons are linked in straight or branched chains are called Open Chain Compounds .
Types of Open Chain Compounds :
Straight Chain Compounds
Branch Chain Compounds 2.Closed Chain Compounds :
Closed chain compounds are also known as Cyclic Compounds .
The compounds in which carbon atoms form rings are called closed chain compounds.
Closed Chain Compounds are divided into:
1.Homocyclic or Carbocyclic Compounds :
(Cyclic comp having only carbon in the ring)
(Cyclic comp having atoms other than carbon also in the ring)
Classification of Homocyclic or Carbocyclic Compounds :
Alicyclic Compounds Aromatic Compounds
(ii) Classification of organic compounds on the basis of functional groups:
An atom or a group of atoms in a molecule that is responsible for chemical behavior of the molecule is called functional group.
e.g Alkyl halide ,Carboxylic acid , Alcohol
On the basis of functional groups, organic compounds are divided into various families.
A few families are:
Family Functional Group
1.Alkane Nil, just has -C-C- 2.Alkene >C = C<
3.Alkyne -C≡C- 4.Arene (Aromatic comp)
5.Alkyl halide -X
6.Alcohol -OH (attached to aliphatic carbon)
7.Phenol -OH (attached to aromatic carbon) 8.Ether C-O-C
9.Amine -NH2(pri), NH(sec), N(ter) 10.Ketone ─CO─
12.Carboxylic acid ─COOH
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