Coordinate Covalent bond
A coordinate Covalent bond is also known as a Dative or Dipolar Bond.
Coordinate Covalent Bond Definition:
It is a type of covalent bond that forms when one atom donates a pair of electrons to another atom. It is a kind of 2 – centre s electron covalent bond in which the 2 electrons derive from the same atom.
Donor and Acceptor :
The atom which donates the lone pair of electrons is called the donor (Lewis base) and the atom which accepts the lone pair of electrons is called the acceptor ( Lewis acid) in a coordinate covalent bond.
Difference between Donor and Acceptor:
It’s very easy to differentiate between donor and acceptor.
Remember that the donor is the electron-rich species and the acceptor is the electron-deficient species. For example, NH3 and H2O are donors (electron-rich) because they are stable molecules(Complete valence shell)and H+ ion and BF3 are examples of acceptors (electron-deficient) because they are unstable (need electrons to complete their valence shell configuration).
Formation of a Coordinate bond:
In simple words, the donation of lone pair (unshared electron pair) of electrons by one atom (donor) results in the formation of a coordinate (Dative) bond.
Watch Coordinate Covalent Bond ( in Urdu/Hindi) Chemistry 3d Animation:
Example of Coordinate covalent bond:
Formation of NH4+ ion
Ammonia (NH3) is a stable molecule. In ammonia, Nitrogen is a central atom having 5 electrons in its valence shell .3 electrons are shared with 3-H atoms and 1 lone pair of electrons completes the valence shell configuration. Due to the presence of one lone electron pair (unshared electron pair), it is an electron-rich species and can donate this electron pair to another atom. Therefore ammonia is a donor.
On the other hand, when a hydrogen atom loses its one valence shell electron results in an H+ ion. H+ is also known as a proton because it’s having only one proton and no electron or neutron. so to complete its valence shell( duplet) H+ need two electrons. Therefore H+ is an electron acceptor.
When nitrogen in ammonia donates its lone electron pair to H+ results in the formation of a coordinate covalent bond and the product formed as a result of the coordinate bond is ammonium ion(NH4+) and is known as an adduct.
What is adduct?
The specie formed after the donation of electron pair from donor to acceptor is called adduct. NH4+ is an example of the adduct.
Representation of Coordinate covalent bond(Dative or Dipolar Bond):
A coordinate covalent bond is simply represented by an arrow pointing from the donor toward the acceptor.
Difference between ionic, covalent and coordinate covalent bonds:
The major difference between ionic, covalent and coordinate bonds is that the ionic bond is formed by the complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another atom e.g. NaCl.
Diagram of Ionic Bond:
A covalent bond is formed by the mutual sharing of electrons between the atoms e.g. H2, Cl2, F2 H2O, HF etc.
Whereas a Coordinate covalent bond is formed by the donation of electron pairs from one atom to another atom.
-> Ionic bond
Also, watch Ionic Bond (in Urdu/Hindi):
This video will help you in understanding😊 one of the important type of chemical bonding i.e ionic bonding.
In this video you will learn the following topics with 3d animated diagrams:
- Easiest Definition of ionic bond.
- How ionic bonds are formed.
- Why ionic bonding takes place.
- Examples of ionic bonds with animation.
- Is NaCl an ionic or covalent.
- ionic bonding of NaCl (sodium chloride).
- type of bonding between Na+ and Cl ions in NaCl.
Also, watch Covalent Bond (in Urdu/Hindi):
This video will help you in understanding the concept of Covalent bonds with the help of the easiest definition, examples of covalent bonds and also the types of covalent bonds.
You will be able to understand the types of covalent bonds on the basis of electron pair sharing, which are as follow:
- Single Covalent Bond
- Double Covalent Bond
- Triple Covalent Bond
- Also discuss the types of covalent bonds on the basis of electronegativity difference, which is a polar covalent bond and non-polar covalent bonds with definition and examples.
Metallic bonds: Definition, Examples & Properties:
A metallic bond is a type of chemical bond formed between metal atoms.
Explaining metallic bonds with the help of the following points along with 3d animation in a video:
- What are metallic bonds?
- Metallic bonding definition and examples in a real life.
- How are metallic bonds formed?
- How do metallic bonds work?
- What type of bond is the metallic bond
- is metallic bonding ionic or covalent?
- Identify a metallic bond with a diagram
- General physical properties of metallic bonds
- Metallic bonds are good conductors of heat and electricity, high melting point and high boiling point, malleable ductile and lustrous in nature.
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Frequently Asked Questions – FAQ
What is meant by a coordinate bond?
A covalent bond is composed of a pair of electrons contributed by only one of the two atoms it connects.
What is the difference between covalent and coordinate bond?
Covalent and coordinate bonds are chemical bonds that result from the sharing of electrons by two atoms. When two atoms share their electrons, a covalent bond is created. In contrast, a coordination bond is created when one atom transfers one of its additional electron pairs to another.
Are coordinate covalent bonds polar?
In a covalent bond, the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms can be zero or extremely small, but in a coordinate covalent link, a polar covalent bond forms. For the formation of a coordinate covalent bond, an atom in the molecule must have a lone pair.
How is a coordinate bond formed?
Coordinate bonds (also known as dative covalent bonds) are covalent bonds (a pair of shared electrons) in which both electrons originate from the same atom.