Formation of Ammonium ion (NH4+) -Coordinate Bond-Chemical Bonding

How is NH4+ ion formed?

Ammonium ion

Formation of Ammonium ion:

When ammonia (NH3) combines with H+ ion, results in the formation of Ammonium ion through a coordinate covalent bond.

In ammonia, Nitrogen is a central atom having 5 electrons in its valence shell,3 electrons are shared with 3-H atoms and 1 lone pair of electrons complete the valence shell configuration.

Ammonia structure

Due to the presence of one lone pair electron (unshared electron pair) , it is electron-rich specie ( nucleophile)and can donate this electron pair to another atom(electrophile). Therefore ammonia is a donor. On the other hand, when a hydrogen atom loses its one valence shell electron results in an H+ ion.

Formation of H+ ion

 H+ is also known as a proton because the H+ ion has only one proton, no electron or neutron.

so to complete its valence shell ( duplet) H+ ion need two electrons .Therefore H+ is an electron acceptor(electrophile).

When the ammonia molecule combines with the H+ ion by the donation of a lone pair electron from N-atom (in ammonia) to H+ ion results in the formation of ammonium ion,NH4+.

coordinate bond formation

A coordinate Covalent bond is a type of covalent bond that forms when one atom donates a pair of electrons (Nucleophile) to another atom (Electrophile).

A coordinate Covalent bond is also known as a Dative or Dipolar Bond.

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