How are ammonium NH4+ ions formed?
How do you convert ammonia to ammonium ion?
Formation of Ammonium ion:
When ammonia (NH3) combines with an H+ ion, results in the formation of an Ammonium ion through a coordinate covalent bond.
In ammonia, Nitrogen is a central atom having 5 electrons in its valence shell,3 electrons are shared with 3-H atoms and 1 lone pair of electrons completes the valence shell configuration.
Due to the presence of one lone pair electron (unshared electron pair), it is electron-rich species ( nucleophile)and can donate this electron pair to another atom(electrophile). Therefore ammonia is a donor. On the other hand, when a hydrogen atom loses its one valence shell electron results in an H+ ion.
H+ is also known as a proton because the H+ ion has only one proton, no electron or neutron.
so to complete its valence shell ( duplet) H+ ion need two electrons .Therefore H+ is an electron acceptor(electrophile).
When the ammonia molecule combines with the H+ ion by the donation of a lone pair electron from N-atom (in ammonia) to H+ ion results in the formation of ammonium ion, NH4+.
A coordinate Covalent bond is a type of covalent bond that forms when one atom donates a pair of electrons (Nucleophile) to another atom (Electrophile).
A coordinate Covalent bond is also known as a Dative or Dipolar Bond.
What is the valency of ammonia?
Due to the completion of the octet in its outermost orbit, ammonia NH3 as a compound has no valency.
What is the valency of ammonium ion ?
Ammonium ion NH4+ has the chemical formula of NH4+ having valency of +1 in the form of a positive ion.
What is the shape of ammonium ion?
Ammonium ion has the form of a tetrahedron. Eight electrons and four hydrogen atoms fill the four corners of the tetrahedron in ammonium (NH4+).
Formation of Ammonium ion & Hydronium ion ( in Urdu / Hindi)
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