How is NH4+ ion formed?
Formation of Ammonium ion:
When ammonia (NH3) combines with H+ ion, results in the formation of Ammonium ion through a coordinate covalent bond.
In ammonia, Nitrogen is a central atom having 5 electrons in its valence shell,3 electrons are shared with 3-H atoms and 1 lone pair of electrons complete the valence shell configuration.
Due to the presence of one lone pair electron (unshared electron pair) , it is electron-rich specie ( nucleophile)and can donate this electron pair to another atom(electrophile). Therefore ammonia is a donor. On the other hand, when a hydrogen atom loses its one valence shell electron results in an H+ ion.
H+ is also known as a proton because the H+ ion has only one proton, no electron or neutron.
so to complete its valence shell ( duplet) H+ ion need two electrons .Therefore H+ is an electron acceptor(electrophile).
When the ammonia molecule combines with the H+ ion by the donation of a lone pair electron from N-atom (in ammonia) to H+ ion results in the formation of ammonium ion,NH4+.
A coordinate Covalent bond is a type of covalent bond that forms when one atom donates a pair of electrons (Nucleophile) to another atom (Electrophile).
A coordinate Covalent bond is also known as a Dative or Dipolar Bond.
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