How are ammonium ions formed | NH4+ Formation

How are ammonium NH4+ ions formed?

what is meant by ammonium ion
Ammonium ion

How do you convert ammonia to ammonium ion?

Formation of Ammonium ion:

When ammonia (NH3) combines with an H+ ion, results in the formation of an Ammonium ion through a coordinate covalent bond.

Ammonia Structure

In ammonia, Nitrogen is a central atom having 5 electrons in its valence shell,3 electrons are shared with 3-H atoms and 1 lone pair of electrons completes the valence shell configuration.

ammonia structure
Ammonia structure

Due to the presence of one lone pair electron (unshared electron pair), it is electron-rich species ( nucleophile)and can donate this electron pair to another atom(electrophile). Therefore ammonia is a donor. On the other hand, when a hydrogen atom loses its one valence shell electron results in an H+ ion.

trigonal pyramidal structure of nh3
h+ ion formation
Formation of H+ ion

 H+ is also known as a proton because the H+ ion has only one proton, no electron or neutron.

so to complete its valence shell ( duplet) H+ ion need two electrons .Therefore H+ is an electron acceptor(electrophile).

When the ammonia molecule combines with the H+ ion by the donation of a lone pair electron from N-atom (in ammonia) to H+ ion results in the formation of ammonium ion, NH4+.

coordinate covalent bond example
coordinate bond formation

A coordinate Covalent bond is a type of covalent bond that forms when one atom donates a pair of electrons (Nucleophile) to another atom (Electrophile).

A coordinate Covalent bond is also known as a Dative or Dipolar Bond.

What is the valency of ammonia?

Due to the completion of the octet in its outermost orbit, ammonia NH3 as a compound has no valency.

What is the valency of ammonium ion ?

Ammonium ion NH4+ has the chemical formula of NH4+ having valency of +1 in the form of a positive ion.

What is the shape of ammonium ion?

Ammonium ion has the form of a tetrahedron. Eight electrons and four hydrogen atoms fill the four corners of the tetrahedron in ammonium (NH4+).

Recommended videos:

Formation of Ammonium ion & Hydronium ion ( in Urdu / Hindi)

Formation of Ammonium ion & Hydronium ion ( in Urdu / Hindi)

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Free pdf Book notes are available!

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✔Check out Related Notes !!

🔹Coordinate covalent bond

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🔹Hydrogen bond


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