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Organic compounds are classified into different series on the basis of functional groups. These series are called homologous series. Thus the study of organic compounds becomes easier.
Homo means “same ” and series means “sequence”
A series of organic compounds have the same functional group, same chemical properties but each member is different from the next member by a methylene group (-CH2) & physical properties are called homologous series.
Homologous Series Definition:
A series of compounds in which there is a constant difference of methylene (-CH2-) group between any two successive members of the family.
Each member of the homologous series is called a homolog.
What are homologs?
In Organic chemistry, homologous series adjacent members differ by methylene (-CH2-) group. These individual members are called homologs.
General characteristics of Homologous Series:
- There is a constant difference in the methylene (-CH2-) group between any two successive members of a homologous series.
- All the members of a homologous series can be represented by a general formula e.g. general formulae for alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, alkyl halides are CnH2n+2, CnH2n, CnH2n–2, CnH2n+1OH, CnH2n+1X respectively.
- All the members of a homologous series have same functional group.
- All the members of a homologous series have same general chemical properties.
- There is a gradual change in physical properties in a homologous series from lower members to higher members.
- All the members of a homologous series can be prepared by same general methods of preparations.
- All families of organic compounds form a homologous series.
General Formula for alkane ,alkene & alkyne:
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