In organic chemistry, homologous series is defined as a series of compounds in which there is a constant difference in the methylene (-CH2-) group between any two successive members of the family.
Homologous series of alkanes,alkenes and alcohols:
General characteristics of Homologous Series:
- There is a constant difference of methylene (-CH2-) group between any two successive members of a homologous series.
- All the members of a homologous series can be represented by a general formula e.g. general formulae for alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, alkyl halides are CnH2n+2, CnH2n, CnH2n-2, CnH2n+1OH, CnH2n+1X respectively.
- All the members of a homologous series have same functional group.
- All the members of a homologous series have same general chemical properties.
- There is a gradual change in physical properties in a homologous series from lower members to higher members.
- All the members of a homologous series can be prepared by same general methods of preparations.
- All families of organic compounds form a homologous series.
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