How do you calculate the yield of a reaction

Yield of a reaction:

The quantity of product produced in a reaction is called the yield of the reaction.

Types of Yield of a reaction

yield of the reaction is of three types.

(i)  Theoretical Yield  

     The quantity of product as calculated by stoichiometric calculations or calculations based on a balanced equation is called theoretical yield.

(ii)   Actual Yield:

    The quantity of product that is practically obtained after the completion of the reaction is called actual yield.

  • The actual yield is always less than theoretical yield due to following reasons.
  • Mechanical losses:
  • Mechanical losses may occur at different stages e.g. while handling of sample, during separation of product, during purification of product etc.
  • Side reactions: Some time due to side reactions, some of the reactants or product change to another substance and therefore amount of actual product will be less.
  • Reversibility of reaction:
  • Due to reverse reaction some of the product changes back to reactants.
  • Non-activated molecules:
  • All the molecules of reactants are not activated. Non-activated molecules (i.e. molecules possessing energy less than activation energy) will not react.
  • Impurity:
  • every sample has impurities in it. Even highly pure substance has little bit impurities. So actual yield will be less.
  • Reaction conditions: If conditions are not favorable then actual yield will be low.

So it is worth calculating percentage yield.

(iii) Percentage Yield:

Percentage Yield   =       Actual yield x  100   

Theoretical yield     

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