Diagram Representation of NaCl

What is an Ionic bond? Explain with an example.

What is an Ionic bond? Explain with an example.

ANSWER:

 Ionic Bond Definition:

 “The chemical bond which is formed due to complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another atom is called Ionic bond or electrovalent bond”.

Conditions for Ionic Bonding:

Following are the conditions which are necessary for the formation of an Ionic bond.

  • One element should be metal while other elements should be non-metal.
  • The electronegativity difference between two bonded atoms should be 1.7 or above.
  • The ionization energy of metal should be low.
  • The electronegativity of non-metal should be high.

EXPLANATION:

  1. The transfer of electrons between atoms completes the octet or duplet.
  2. This type of bonding is always between a metal and non-metal.
  3. Metals always lose electrons to form cations and non-metals always gain electrons to form Anion.
  4. In ionic bond formation, one atom loses an electron and the other gain it.
  5. The atom that losses the electron acquires a positive charge and the other atom, which gains an electron becomes a negatively charged particle.
  6. Due to opposite charges, the electrostatic force of attraction is set up between them.
  7. This force holds these ions together.
  8. This force of attraction is referred to as an ionic bond.
  9. An atom having low ionization energy will lose one or more electrons to form a cation.
  10. An atom having high electronegativity will gain one or more electrons to form an anion.

EXAMPLE:

Formation Of Sodium Chloride (NaCl):

  1. Sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) combine to form sodium chloride (NaCl).
  2. The atomic number of sodium is 11.

The electronic configuration of sodium based On Shell:

K = 2

L = 8

M = 1

The electronic configuration of sodium based On Sub-Shell:

   1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s1

  • Sodium belongs to group 1 A
  • Chlorine belongs to group 7 A
  • The electronegativity of sodium is 0.9 and chlorine is 3.0
  • The electronegativity difference between sodium and chlorine is 2.1, hence, an ionic bond is formed.
  • Sodium has one electron in its outermost shell. Sodium loses one electron to form sodium ion (Na+) and attain the electronic configuration of neon (Ne).

   Na(s) ——— > Na+ + 1e– 

  1. The atomic number of chlorine is 7.
  2. The electronic configuration of chlorine is:

The electronic configuration of chlorine based On Shell:

K=2

L=8

M=7

The electronic configuration of chlorine based On Sub-Shell:

1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p5

  1. Chlorine has 7 electrons in its outermost shell.
  2. Cl gains one electron to form a chloride ion (Cl) and to attain the electronic configuration of Argon (Ar).

Cl + 1e ——- > Cl

  • The electrostatic force f attraction is established between sodium and chlorine
  • Therefore, a crystal of NaCl is formed.

Na++ Cl–>NaCl

Formation Of Calcium Chloride (CaCl2):

  • Ca belongs to group II A
  • Cl belongs to group VII A
  • The electronegativity of calcium is 1.0 while chlorine is 3.0
  • The electronegativity difference between calcium and chlorine is 2.0
  • Thus, an ionic bond is formed
  • Calcium has 2 electrons in its valence shell
  • It has the tendency to lose electrons to attain the inert gas electronic configuration of Neon (Ne)
  • Thus, the calcium ion (Ca+) is formed

Ca ——- > Ca+2 + 2 e-

  1. Chlorine needs one electron to complete its valence shell
  2. It has the tendency to gain one electron to attain the inert gas electronic configuration of Argon (Ar)
  3. So, it forms chlorine ion

2Cl +2e ——- > Cl

  • The electrostatic force of attraction appears between Ca+2 and two chloride ions (Cl- )
  • Thus, white-coloured crystalline CaCl2  is formed

Ca+2 + 2Cl —— > CaCl2

CaCl2 Formation

Formation Of AlCl3:

  • Al belongs to group III A
  • Cl belongs to group VII A
  • Al has three electrons in its valence shell while Cl has 7 electrons in its valence shell
  • Al loses three electrons to form Aluminum ion (Al+3)

Al —> Al +3 + 3e

  • Each Cl atom gains one electron to form a chloride ion (Cl)

3Cl – 3e —> 3Cl

  • The electrostatic force that appears between (Al+3) and (Cl) ions
  • Thus, AlCl3shows ionic character

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