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What are “Proteins”?
The polymers of amino acids are proteins. By peptide linkage, these amino acids are connected.
Structure of Amino acid:
(Amino acid as a building block):
The building components of proteins are amino acids. There are two functional groups in the structure of amino acids, which are listed below:
- Amino functional group
- Carboxyl functional group
“Classification of amino acids”
There are twenty different types of amino acids in all, and each one is required for the synthesis of proteins.
Non-Essential Amino acids:
Only ten of the twenty amino acids can be synthesized by our body. They are also referred to as non-essential amino acids.
Essential Amino acids:
Essential amino acids are those that our body cannot produce on its own.
Formation of Peptide Bond:
- Peptide linkage holds two amino acids together in proteins.
- Peptide linkage is created by removing the proton (H+) from one amino acid NH2 group and the hydroxyl (OH–) from the carboxyl (COOH) group of another amino acid.
- The following is a description of how peptide bonds form:
- One amino functional group is on the left side and one carboxyl functional group is still present, as can be seen in the final molecule.
- Through peptide linkages, these functional groups can interact with additional amino acids.
- Therefore, thousands of amino acids are connected to one another by peptide bonds in this manner to form long chain polymers known as proteins.
“Sources and uses of Protein”
- Origins (sources) of Protein:
- The majority of animals possess essential amino acids, which are needed by our bodies but cannot be produced by them.
- Meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese all provide significant quantities of essential amino acids.
Protein is mostly obtained from plants; for example, beans and pulses are excellent providers of amino acids.
Applications (uses) of Protein:
- Because our muscles, nails, hair, skin, and other protein-based tissues are made up of essential amino acids, we consume them as part of a healthy diet.
- In addition, protein is necessary for the survival of the cells and protoplasm that make up our bodies.
- When we heated tendons and bones in water, we found a protein called gelatin, used in bakery ingredients. We need protein in our diet daily because it gives us both physical and mental strength.
- We know that enzymes operate as catalysts in biological reactions and that the majority of the enzymes in our bodies are protein-based.
- Antibodies, which are defence cells in our bodies that protect us from germ attacks, are also proteins in nature.
- In conclusion, both animals and humans must consume protein to survive.
Kwashiorkor is a particular illness caused by severe protein malnutrition. These are the signs of this illness:
1. A slow rate of growth
2. Skin discoloration
3. Hair discoloration
5. A bloated belly
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