organic chemistry

Planck’s Quantum Theory of Radiation| Black body radiation

Planck’s Quantum Theory of Radiation: In 1900, a German Physicist Max Planck had studied radiations emitted by hot black bodies and presented the results of his famous black body radiations experiments, which showed that light has a dual character, behaving like a particle as well as a wave. He gave the quantum theory of radiation …

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Charle’s Law – Gas Law Chemistry Notes

Charle’s Law: Jacques Charles, in 1662, gave this law. It relates the volume and absolute temperature of ideal gases at constant pressure and mass. It states “For a fixed mass of a gas, the volume is directly proportional to absolute temperature at constant pressure.” V         ∝        T          …………….. (1) This shows that when absolute temperature …

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Boyle’s Law | Gas Law – State of matter Gases

Boyle’s Law: Robert Boyle, in 1662, gave this law. It relates the pressure and volume of ideal gases at constant temperature and mass. It states “For a fixed mass of a gas, the volume is inversely proportional to the pressure at a constant temperature.”     Thus law can also be stated as: “For a fixed mass …

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Structure of Ethyne Hybridization – sp Hybridization in C2H2

Structure of Ethyne: sp Hybridization in Ethyne ( Acetylene):          The hybridization in which one s-orbital and one p-orbital are mixed to form two identical hybrid orbitals is called sp hybridization. The two sp hybrid orbitals degenerate (have equal energy) and they are at an angle of 180o. The remaining two un-hybridized p-orbitals are perpendicular …

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Methods of Preparation of Alkynes – Organic Chemistry Notes

General Methods of Preparation of Alkynes: By dehydrohalogenation of vicinal dihaloalkanes: The removal of hydrogen and halogen is called dehydrohalogenation. When vicinal dihalides are heated with an alcoholic solution of KOH,  hydrogen and halogen atoms are removed from adjacent carbons and in two steps alkynes are produced. Dehalogenation of Tetrahaloalkanes: Tetrahaloalkanes on treated with active …

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Alkyne Nomenclature | Common vs IUPAC System – Organic Chemistry

Alkynes Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons which have at least one carbon-carbon triple bond and a general molecular formula CnH2n-2.  Their functional group is – C ≡ C –. Alkyne Nomenclature: Common System: In the common system, alkynes are considered alkyl derivatives of acetylene (the smallest member of the family). First names of alkyl groups present …

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Conjugation in Alkenes – Organic Chemistry

What is conjugation in alkenes? “The phenomenon of the existence of alternate double and single bonds among carbon atoms is called conjugation.” -C=C-C=C-C=C- Example of Conjugated Compound: e.g. 1,3-butadiene CH2 = CH – CH = CH2 is a conjugated compound. In it all the four carbons are sp2 hybridized. Also, all carbons and hydrogens in …

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What is meant by Chirality – Chiral and Achiral in Organic Chemistry

What is Chirality? “The property of non-identity of an object with its mirror image is called chirality.” Chiral centre of the molecule: “A structural feature within a molecule that is responsible for its chirality is called the chiral centre of the molecule.” What is meant by chiral carbon? “The carbon to which four different atoms …

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