What is a Chemical bond | Chemistry Notes

What is a chemical bond?

               OR

Identify and define the four major types of chemical bonding?

Answer:

Chemical Bond

The attractive forces that hold the atom together to form a chemical compound or molecule are called chemical bonds.

EXPLANATION:

Why do atoms form chemical bonds?

  1. The chemical reactivity of free elements other than inert gas elements is due to incomplete octet in their outermost shell.
  2. Therefore, to attain stability and to complete the outermost shell with electrons, atoms combine chemically to form chemical bonds.

EXAMPLE

  1. Molecules of the same elements consist of the same kind of atoms

O2

O3

  • While molecules of the compounds are made up of different kinds of atoms.

    H20

   CO2

Types of Chemical Bonds:

Chemical bonds are of the following types

  1. Ionic bond
  2. Covalent bond
  3. Co-ordinate  covalent bond
  4. Metallic bond

Ionic Bond:

              The chemical bond which is formed by the complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another atom is called an Ionic bond.

EXAMPLE

Ionic Bonding example

NaCl

CaCl2

Covalent Bond:

             The chemical bond which is formed by the mutual sharing of electrons between atoms is called a Covalent bond.

Covalent Bonding example

EXAMPLE:

H2O

O2

Co-ordinate covalent bond:

 The covalent bond in which a shared pair of electrons is donated by one of the two bonded atoms is called a Co-ordinate covalent bond.

EXAMPLE:

NH4 + (Ammonium Ion)

H3O+

Metallic bond:

 The positively charged ions are held together by mobile electrons are called Metallic bonds.

EXAMPLE:

All metals have metallic bonds.


Recommended videos !!

Chemical bonding in chemistry
What is an Ionic bond
Single, double and triple covalent bond
Polar covalent bond and non-polar covalent bond
Coordinate covalent bond
Metallic bond

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