What is periodic table in Simple Words?

What is Periodic Table in Simple Words?


Periodic Table

A periodic table is a table in which the elements are arranged according to their rising atomic number and recurrent chemical characteristics. They are arranged in a tabular format with rows denoting periods and columns denoting groups.


In the periodic table, the horizontal rows are known as periods. The total number of periods in the periodic table is 7. There are 2 elements in period 1 and 32 in period 6, respectively. The first three periods are known as short periods, while the rest are known as long periods. Moving from left to right in a period causes the characteristics of its constituents to progressively alter. However, the pattern of attributes within a period repeats as you travel from one to the next. The periodic law is followed in this situation.


The vertical rows in the periodic table are called groups. The total number of groups in the periodic table is 18. Elements that share a similar valence shell electronic configuration are grouped together. A number and the letter A or B are used to identify each group. Normal or representative elements are the names given to Group A elements. They are sometimes referred to as primary group components. Transition elements are Group B elements.

Shape Of Periodic Table

The order of the elements is based on their increasing atomic number. Only two elements, H and He, are present in the first period. They both have valence electrons in the K shell. K shells are limited to two electrons. Lithium (Li), atomic number 3, has one electron in the L shell, hence the second period begins with Li. As the K shell is finished at He, the period also finishes at He. Since the L shell can hold eight electrons, the second period contains eight elements. The second period terminates at Ne, which possesses eight electrons(2s2,2p6).

The next element is Na [sodium] whose valence electron is present in the M shell.In Na valence electron is present in 3s sub shell, which has a similar electronic configuration to that of Li (2s1).So it is located under Li.

Mg with 3s2 valence shell electronic configuration is present below Be (2s2).In the same way the upcoming elements i.e Al, Si, P,S, Cl and Ar on the basis of similarity in valence shell electronic configuration are present under B,C,N,O,F AND Ne respectively. Ar has 3s2,3p6 valence shell electronic configuration that is similar to the valence shell electronic configuration of Ne (2s2,2p6).

Next element i.e K has 4s1 valence shell electronic configuration, which is comparable to Na (3s1). So K is located under Na and a new period is (4th) started with K. In this manner, elements with comparable valance shell configurations are grouped together.

The way the elements are arranged into periods has a significant impact. In the periodic table, elements with related properties are grouped together.

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