Why does Lithium show anomalous behavior in its group

Anomalous Behavior of Lithium in its group:

lithium atomic number 3
lithium atomic structure

Lithium being 1st member of the group 1 with the symbol Li and atomic number 3 and electronic configuration of 1s2 2s1 shows some differences from the rest of the members of its group.

(i)  Melting and boiling point of Lithium are much higher than other members of its group.

(ii) Lithium is hard metal while other elements of the group are soft metals.

(iii) Lithium forms normal oxide while others form peroxide and superoxide.

(iv) LiOH is less basic than that of others.

(v)  Lithium reacts with nitrogen to form nitride while others do not.

(vi)  Lithium reacts with carbon and forms carbide while others do not.

(vii)  Carbonate and phosphate of Lithium are insoluble in water while that of others are soluble.

(viii)  Li2CO3 is unstable and decomposes on heating while carbonates of others are stable even on heating.

Li2CO3         →           Li2O       +             CO2

(ix)  LiCl is somewhat covalent and is soluble in organic solvents, while chlorides of others are ionic and soluble in water.

(x)   Lithium reacts with water very slowly while others react violently.

(xi)   Nitrate of Lithium produces oxide on heating while nitrates of others produce nitrite.

4LiNO3  →           2Li2O     +      4NO2     +      O2

2NaNO3 →           2NaNO2 +       O2

(xii)   LiOH is unstable and decomposes on heating while hydroxides of others are stable even on heating.

2LiOH        →           Li2O       +        H2O

Lithium-ion (Li+) is heavily hydrated than others.   

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